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What is renal failure ?

Renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys fail to remove metabolic end-products from the

What is renal failure ?

Renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys fail to remove metabolic end-products from the blood and regulate the fluid.the fluid, electrolyte, and pH balance of the extracellular fluids. The underlying cause may be renal disease, systemic disease, or urologic defects of nonrenal origin. Renal failure can occur as an acute or a chronic disorder. Acute renal failure is abrupt in onset and often is reversible if recognized early and treated appropriately. In contrast, chronic renal failure is the end result of irreparable damage to the kidneys. It develops slowly, usually over the course of a number of years.

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure represents a rapid decline in renal function sufficient to increase blood levels of nitrogenous wastes and impair fluid and electrolyte balance. It is a common threat to seriously ill persons in intensive care units, with a mortality rate ranging from 42% to 88%.1 Although treatment methods such as dialysis and renal replacement methods are effective in correcting life-threatening fluid and electrolyte disorders, the mortality rate associated with acute renal failure has not changed substantially since the 1960s.2,3 This probably is because acute renal failure is seen more often in older persons than before, and because it frequently is superimposed on other life-threatening conditions, such as trauma, shock, and sepsis. The most common indicator of acute renal failure is azotemia, an accumulation of nitrogenous wastes (urea nitrogen, uric acid, and creatinine) in the blood. In acute renal failure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased. As a result, excretion of nitrogenous wastes is reduced and fluid and electrolyte balance cannot be maintained. Persons with acute renal failure often are asymptomatic, and the condition is diagnosed by observation of elevations in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine.




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